2 Timothy 3:16 (ASV) Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for instruction which is in righteousness.
I. THE FACT OF INSPIRATION
a. Inspiration in the Greek
b. Inspiration Biblically
“God’s superintendence of the human authors of Scripture so that using their own individual personalities, they composed and recorded without error His revelation to man in the words of the original autographs.”
John 17:17 “Sanctify them in the truth; Your word is truth.
Psalm 119:160 The sum of Your word is truth, And every one of Your righteous ordinances is everlasting.
c. Inspiration defined by scholars
“Inspiration is a supernatural influence exerted on the sacred writers by the Spirit of God, by virtue of which their writings are given Divine trustworthiness.”- Benjamin B. Warfield
“Inspiration is a superintendence of God the Holy Spirit over the writers of the Scriptures, as a result of which these Scriptures possess Divine authority and trustworthiness and, possessing such Divine authority and trustworthiness, are free from error.” – Edward J. Young
“God superintended the human authors of the Bible so that they composed and recorded without error His message to mankind in the words of their original writings.” – Charles C. Ryrie
“By inspiration of the Scripture we mean that supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit upon the Scripture writers which rendered their writings an accurate record of the revelation or which resulted in what they wrote actually being the Word of God.” – Millard J. Erickson
II. THE ELEMENTS NECESSARY FOR INSPIRATION
a. God’s causality
2 Peter 1:21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.
b. The prophetic agency
c. The actual text of scripture
III. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC VIEW OF INSPIRATION
IV. THE HISTORY OF THE EXTRA BOOKS
a. The Pseudepigraphal books
2 Thessalonians 3:17 I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand, and this is a distinguishing mark in every letter; this is the way I write.
b. The apocryphal books
|Protestant||Roman Catholic view||Greek Orthodox bible|
|1& 2 Esdras||N||N||Y|
|Additions to Esther||N||Y||Y|
|Epistle of Jeremiah||N||Y||Y|
|Song of 3 Children||N||Y||Y|
|Story of Susanna||N||Y||Y|
|Bel and the Dragon||N||Y||Y|
|Prayer of Manasseh||N||Y||Y|
V. THE DETERMINATION OF CANONICITY
a. Was the book written by a prophet of God?
Deuteronomy 18:18 (NASB) ‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.
b. Was the writer authenticated often by acts of God?
Matthew 7:15 “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves.
Acts 2:22 “Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know
Hebrews 2:3-4 (NASB) 3 how will we escape if we neglect so great a salvation? After it was at the first spoken through the Lord, it was confirmed to us by those who heard, 4 God also testifying with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His own will.
2 Corinthians 12:12 (NASB) The signs of a true apostle were performed among you with all perseverance, by signs and wonders and miracles.
c. Does the book tell the truth about God, with no falsehood or contradiction?
2 Corinthians 1:17-18 Therefore, I was not vacillating when I intended to do this, was I? Or what I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, so that with me there will be yes, yes and no, no at the same time? (18) But as God is faithful, our word to you is not yes and no.
Hebrews 6:18 so that by two unchangeable things in which it is impossible for God to lie, we who have taken refuge would have strong encouragement to take hold of the hope set before us.
2 Maccabees 12:42-45 and they turned to prayer, beseeching that the sin which had been committed might be wholly blotted out. And the noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.  He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.  For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.  But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.
1 Peter 1:18-19 knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, (19) but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.
Ecclesiasticus 25:33 From the woman came the beginning of sin, and by her we all die.
1 Corinthians 15:22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
Romans 5:12-15 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned (13) for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. (14) Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. (15) But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many.
d. Does the book have a divine capacity to transform lives?
1 Peter 1:23 for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, that is, through the living and enduring word of God.
Isaiah 55:11 So will My word be which goes forth from My mouth; It will not return to Me empty, Without accomplishing what I desire, And without succeeding in the matter for which I sent it.
2 Timothy 3:15 and that from childhood you have known the sacred writings which are able to give you the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
1 Thessalonians 2:13 (NASB) For this reason we also constantly thank God that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but for what it really is, the word of God, which also performs its work in you who believe.
e. Was the book accepted as God’s Word by the people to whom it was first delivered?
2 Peter 3:15-16 and regard the patience of our Lord as salvation; just as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, wrote to you, (16) as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction.